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Therapeutic Potential for Aldosterone Inhibition in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
study id #: NCT02354352
condition: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
The study is to demonstrate non-inferiority of spironolactone vs. eplerenone in preserving cardiac and pulmonary function in patients with preserved LV ejection fraction. Males with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) confirmed clinically and by mutation analysis will be enrolled. Subjects will be randomized to either eplerenone or spironolactone. Subjects will use a drug diary to record daily compliance of taking the study medication as well as any concerns they may have during the study period. Subjects will undergo cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) at baseline and then again at 12 months post enrollment. Subjects will also complete a quality of life questionnaire at baseline and 12 months. Degree of elbow contracture will be measured using a goniometer at baseline and 12 months.
intervention: Eplerenone, Spironolactone
mechanism of action: Aldosterone-blocking agents to prevent cardiovascular strain
last updated: October 21, 2019
start date: March 20, 2015
estimated completion: May 2018
phase of development: Phase 3
size / enrollment: 52
DMD is an X-linked disorder in which the sarcolemmal protein dystrophin is effectively absent. Males with DMD typically die in the third and fourth decades of life of cardiopulmonary disease. Mouse models of DMD, autopsy data, and in vivo human studies using magnetic resonance-based late gadolinium enhancement imaging (LGE) have shown that progressive myocardial damage is well underway before left ventricular ejection fraction (LV EF) becomes abnormal.
Exertional symptoms and signs of myocardial disease are typically absent as skeletal muscle disease progressively limits functional capacity in affected boys. Thus, cardiac involvement can go undetected until LV dysfunction and myocardial fibrosis are advanced. While echocardiography remains a useful tool to evaluate LV dysfunction, CMR with LGE is advantageous for DMD patients since it identifies myocardial injury before decline in EF is apparent by echocardiography. Further, greater reproducibility affords efficient sample sizes for cardiomyopathy clinical trials in patients with rare diseases. CMR's increasing availability at DMD clinical centers has afforded earlier cardiomyopathy detection, and has helped refine current management to typically include agents such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) once damage is evident. This strategy, however, may not be sufficient, with prior studies showing decline in systolic function with or without ACEI or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) therapy.
The investigators previously tested mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism (MRA) added to ACEI while EF was still normal in a mouse model that mimics the myocardial damage seen in DMD patients. This combination significantly reduced myocardial injury and improved (made more negative) LV circumferential strain (Ecc), a sensitive and early marker of LV systolic dysfunction. Additionally, preliminary findings from a recently completed clinical trial suggests efficacy of eplerenone vs. placebo, while further preclinical data suggests greater benefit without concomitant steroid use. Thus, a non-inferiority trial comparing MRAs is needed.
- Left ventricular strain [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
a sensitive measure of heart muscle function
• LV EF >=45% (+/-5%) by clinically-acquired echocardiography, nuclear scan or cardiac MRI done within 2 weeks of enrollment
• Non-MR compatible implants
• Severe claustrophobia
• Gadolinium contrast allergy
• Kidney disease
• Prior use of or allergy to aldosterone antagonist
• Use of other investigational therapy.
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